PAUL ROBESON WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE INTRODUCTION
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Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was an [[United States|American]] [[bass-baritone]] concert singer, recording artist and actor, who became noted for his wide-ranging [[social justice]] [[activism]] and [[political radicalism]]. A forerunner of the [[civil rights]] movement, Robeson was an [[All-American]] athlete, [[Phi Beta Kappa Society]] laureate and valedictorian during his years at [[Rutgers University]]. After graduating from [[Columbia Law School]] in 1923, Robeson discontinued his career as an attorney due to professional racism. Simultaneously he became a sought after stage actor and concert singer, eventually becoming an international film star and celebrity. Robeson was also a recipient of both the NAACP's [[Spingarn Medal]], the [[Stalin Peace Prize]] and of honorary memberships in over half a dozen trade unions for his prodigious labor activism. Robeson, Susan. ''Paul Robeson: The Whole World in His Hands, a Pictorial Biography'', 1980, pg 13, prologueBoyle, Shelia Tully. ''Paul Robeson: The Years of Promise and Achievement'', 2001, pg 11 notes on sourcesDuberman, Martin. ''Paul Robeson'', 1989, prefaceSeton, Marie. ''Paul Robeson'', 1958, pg 57.Despite his being one of the most internationally famous cultural figures of his time, [[persecution]] by the [[US government]] and blacklisting by the [[US media|media]] over his radical politics, has kept Paul Robeson out of mainstream [[pop culture]] and many interpretations of [[US history]], including civil rights, sports and [[black history]].
Paul Robeson was the first major concert star to popularize the performance of [[Negro]] [[spirituals]] and was the first black actor of the 20th century to portray [[Shakespeare]]'s ''[[Othello]]'' on [[Broadway theatre|Broadway]]. As of fall 2010, Robeson's run in the 1943–45 ''Othello'' production still holds the record for the longest running Shakespeare play on Broadway. In line with Robeson's open dissatisfaction with film industry [[stereotype]]s, his roles in both the [[Cinema of the United States|US]] and [[Cinema of the United Kingdom|British film industries]] were some of the first parts ever created that displayed dignity and respect for black film actors, paving the way for [[Sidney Poitier]] and [[Harry Belafonte]].Duberman, Martin. ''Paul Robeson'', 1989, pg 90. Paul Robeson chose to become a political artist at the height of his career in the late 1930s, entertaining and raising money for both allied troops and the International Brigades in the fight against [[fascism]] during [[World War II]]. After numerous visits to the [[U.S.S.R]], where Robeson proclaimed he experienced no [[segregation]] and "walked in full human dignity for the first time", he also became a staunch supporter of socialism advocating for a strong post war friendship with Russia.
Robeson eventually became a prime target of the [[Red Scare]] during the late 1940s through to the mid-1960s. Post War, Robeson publicly stated that the United States government and many Western European powers, had failed, both [[people of color]] and the [[working class]] of all races in the struggle for basic [[human rights]]. Through his strong following in the Black community, Robeson urged U.S. blacks not to serve in the Unites States armed forces until the U.S. government abolished [[Jim Crow]] and passed strict anti-lynching laws. Concurrently, he maintained his outspoken adoration of Russian culture, peace with the [[Soviet Union]] and emerging Communist countries. Robeson's passport was then revoked from 1950 to 1958 under the [[McCarran Act]] effectively blacklisting him when he refused to sign an anti-Communist [[loyalty oath]]. Under surveillance for well over three decades, U.S. Congressional records and FBI files released under the [[Freedom of Information Act]], show the reasoning behind Robeson's persecution was not limited primarily to his affiliations with the Soviet Union. Other aspects of his life and politics including anti-imperialism, the [[racial integration]] of [[major league baseball]], the [[International Brigades]], the [[Council on African Affairs]] and [[progressive]] children's groups were also cause for concern by the [[United States Intelligence Community]]. As of fall 2010, there is no official evidence of Paul Robeson ever being a member of any domestic or international Communist group.
As the [[Cold War]] continued, Robeson was publicly condemned for his radical beliefs by both the [[United States Congress]] and mainstream black organizations including the [[National Association for the Advancement of Colored People]] (NAACP).Duberman, Martin. ''Paul Robeson'', 1989, pg 400. To date, Paul Robeson's FBI file is one of the largest of any entertainer ever investigated by the [[United States Intelligence Community]], requiring its own internal index and unique "status of health file." Duberman, Martin. ''Paul Robeson'', 1989, pg 563, notes on sources While on tour in Europe during the early 1960's following the return of his passport, Paul Robeson's health broke down severely under controversial circumstances. In 1965, he was forced to permanently retire. Despite limited activity in his later years, Paul Robeson remained throughout his life, unapologetic about his political views.Brown, Lloyd. ''The Young Paul Robeson 1997.pg 161 Present day advocates and historians of Paul Robeson's legacy have worked successfully to restore his name to numerous history books and sports records, while honoring his memory globally with posthumous awards and recognitions.Turner, Charlotte. ''Paul Robeson's Last Days in Philadelphia'', 1986, pg 150.Duberman, Martin. ''Paul Robeson'', 1989, pg 543.